How To Set Up Apache Virtual Hosts on Ubuntu Linux

You will need to have Apache installed in order to work through these steps. If you haven’t already done so, you can get Apache installed on your server through apt-get:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install apache2

For example let’s create virtual Apache host test.host. Create host directory:

sudo mkdir -p /var/www/test.host/public_html

Now we have the directory structure for our files, but they are owned by our root user. If we want our regular user to be able to modify files in our web directories, we can change the ownership by doing this:

sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/test.host/public_html

We should also modify our permissions a little bit to ensure that read access is permitted to the general web directory and all of the files and folders it contains so that pages can be served correctly:

sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www

Virtual host files are the files that specify the actual configuration of our virtual hosts and dictate how the Apache web server will respond to various domain requests.

Apache comes with a default virtual host file called 000-default.conf that we can use as a jumping off point. We are going to copy it over to create a virtual host file for each of our domains.

We will start with one domain, configure it, copy it for our second domain, and then make the few further adjustments needed. The default Ubuntu configuration requires that each virtual host file end in .conf. Start by copying the file for the first domain:

sudo cp /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf /etc/apache2/sites-available/test.host.conf

Open the new file in your editor with root privileges:

sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/test.host.conf

Change this file look something like this:

<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerAdmin [email protected]
    ServerName test.host
    ServerAlias www.test.host
    DocumentRoot /var/www/test.host/public_html

    <Directory /var/www/test.host/public_html>
        Require all granted
    </Directory>

    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined
</VirtualHost>

Now that we have created our virtual host files, we must enable them. Apache includes some tools that allow us to do this.

sudo a2ensite test.host.conf

Next, disable the default site defined in 000-default.conf:

sudo a2dissite 000-default.conf

When you are finished, you need to restart Apache to make these changes take effect:

sudo service apache2 restart

Mikrotik create SSTP server

1. Create CA certificate on Mikrotik:

On tab “Key Usage” leave only crl sign and key cert. sign

2. Create server certificate:

On tab “Key Usage” uncheck all options:

3. Open certificate CA and Sign it:

CA CRL Host – host where your certificate will be checked, write there IP address or domain name of Your Mikrotik.

Field CA need to be empty.

4. Now we signed root certificate, let’s sign Server certificate: open Server certificate, click Sign, in field CA select certificate CA.

That’s all we created our certificates, now let’s create SSTP Server on Mikrotik

5. Creating SSTP Server on Mikrotik.

And now create Your user profile: go to PPP > Secrets, click Add (+) and write user name, password, service, IP address like on screenshot:

Configure SSTP client in Windows 10

First go to the System > Certificates and Export CA certificate:

Download certificate from Mikrotik > Files to Your PC and install it:

Now create new VPN connection:

Also You can use this SSTP connection in Linux – How to install SSTP Client in Linux read in this article: Connect to SSTP server from Linux

Connect to SSTP server from Linux

SSTP is Microsofts Remote Access Solution (RAS) for PPP over SSL. It can be used instead of PPTP or L2TP, and is only available with Windows Vista/7 connecting to a Windows 2008 Server. The advantage of SSTP compared to PPTP and L2TP is that it cannot be easily blocked by firewalls since the traffic is transmitted over HTTPS on port 443.

In Ubuntu Linux we can connect to SSTP by using SSTP-Client project on SourceForge.

To install SSTP-Client on Ubuntu add PPA repository:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:eivnaes/network-manager-sstp

Then update package list and install packages sstp-client, network-manager-sstp by commands:

sudo apt update
sudo apt install sstp-client network-manager-sstp

Package network-manager-sstp is used only on Linux with graphic interface, on console Linux You don’t need to install this package.

Hov to change user agent in Firefox without any plugins

Sometimes we need to visit any website from mobile phone or other device, but we haven’t this devise. Or if we want to hide from website real name of browser and operating system. In this case we can change default User agent record in browser PC.

Lets watch how to change User agent in Firefox browser. Open new tab and write there next code:

about:config

In search line write next code:

general.useragent.override

Then check “New line”, press button + (Create) and write User agent in text field. For example if we want that our Firefox browser looks like Internet Explore 9 – write next code:

Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0)

Here is some examples of user agents for popular browsers:

Desktop browsers:

  • Mozilla Firefox 64 (Win 10 x64): Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64; rv:64.0)
  • Mozilla Firefox 36 (Win 8.1 x64): Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64; rv:36.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/36.0
  • Google Chrome 53 (Win 10 x64): Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/53.0.2785.116 Safari/537.36
  • Google Chrome 40 (Win 8.1 x64): Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/40.0.2214.115 Safari/537.36
  • Opera 40 (Win 10 x64): Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/53.0.2785.101 Safari/537.36 OPR/40.0.2308.62
  • Opera 12.17 (Win 8 x64): Opera/9.80 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) Presto/2.12.388 Version/12.17
  • Apple Safari 5.1 (Win 8 x64): Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/534.57.2 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.1.7 Safari/534.57.2
  • Internet Explorer 11 (Win 10 x64): Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; Trident/7.0; .NET4.0C; .NET4.0E; rv:11.0) like Gecko
  • Internet Explorer 11 (Win 8.1 x64): Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64; Trident/7.0; ASU2JS; rv:11.0) like Gecko
  • Microsoft Edge (Win 10 x64): Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/46.0.2486.0 Safari/537.36 Edge/13.10586

Mobile browsers:

  • iPhone: Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 6_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/536.26 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/6.0 Mobile/10A5376e Safari/8536.25
  • Android 2.3.5 (Philips W632): Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android 2.3.5; ru-ru; Philips W632 Build/GRJ90) AppleWebKit/533.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Mobile Safari/533.1

Laptops:

iPad: Mozilla/5.0 (iPad; CPU OS 6_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/536.26 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/6.0 Mobile/10A5376e Safari/8536.25

Search engines:

  • Яндекс: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; YandexBot/3.0; +http://yandex.com/bots)
  • Google: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Googlebot/2.1; +http://www.google.com/bot.html)
  • Bing: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; bingbot/2.0; +http://www.bing.com/bingbot.htm)
  • Yahoo! Slurp: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Yahoo! Slurp; http://help.yahoo.com/help/us/ysearch/slurp)
  • Mail.ru: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Linux x86_64; Mail.RU_Bot/Fast/2.0; +http://go.mail.ru/help/robots)
  • Sputnik: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; SputnikBot/2.3; +http://corp.sputnik.ru/webmaster)

Robots, bots, analyzers:

  • Ahrefs: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; AhrefsBot/5.0; +http://ahrefs.com/robot/)
  • Majestic: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MJ12bot/v1.4.5; http://www.majestic12.co.uk/bot.php?+)
  • SMTBot: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; SMTBot/1.0; +http://www.similartech.com/smtbot)
  • linkdex: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; linkdexbot/2.2; +http://www.linkdex.com/bots/)
  • Exabot: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Exabot/3.0; +http://www.exabot.com/go/robot)
  • StatOnline.ru: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; StatOnlineRuBot/1.0)

How to check SSD life in Linux

To check SSD Smart information install program: Smartmontools:

sudo apt-get intall smartmontools

To view information about SSD drive use command:

sudo smartctl -i /dev/sda

To view all Smart information about SSD use command:

sudo smartctl -a /dev/sda

To view only SSD health in percent use command:

sudo smartctl -a /dev/sda | grep Media_Wearout_Indicator

Install Nextcloud on Ubuntu server

To install Nextcloud on Ubuntu or other Linux use command:

sudo snap install nextcloud

After installation snap package check installation status

sudo snap changes nextcloud

To change default http and https ports use commands:

sudo snap set nextcloud ports.http=81
sudo snap set nextcloud ports.https=444

In Nginx proxy server configuration file change proxy_pass default port to 81:

Nextcloud’s automatic hostname detection can fail when behind a proxy; you might notice it redirecting incorrectly. If this happens, override the automatic detection (including the port if necessary), e.g.:

sudo nextcloud.occ config:system:set overwritehost --value="example.com:81"

Nextcloud and Nginx https proxy

If You use Nginx as https frontend and nextcloud as http backend – You neet co change /var/snap/nextcloud/20498/nextcloud/config.php insert the foloving lines:

  'overwrite.cli.url' => 'https://example.host',
  'overwriteprotocol' => 'https',

In Nginx http config file insert 301 redirect to https:

return 301 https://example.host$request_uri;

By default, PHP will use 128M as the memory limit. If you notice images not getting previews generated, or errors about memory exhaustion in your Nextcloud log, you may need to set this to a higher value.

If you’d like to set the memory limit to a higher value (say, 512M), run:

sudo snap set nextcloud php.memory-limit=512M

To set it to be unlimited (not recommended), use -1:

sudo snap set nextcloud php.memory-limit=-1

By default the cronjob interval is 15 minutes. To adjust it (say, 10 minutes) simply run:

sudo snap set nextcloud nextcloud.cron-interval=10m

Manjaro Linux – Install Apache, PHP, MariaDB – MySQL (LAMP)

To install “LAMP” – Apache, PHP, MySQL on Arch and Manjaro Linux do some steps:

First update Your operating system to latest version:

sudo pacman -Syyu

Apache

After updating Your system lets install Apache web server:

sudo pacman -S apache

Edit file /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf, search and comment the following line:
# LoadModule unique_id_module modules/mod_unique_id.so

sudo nano /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Enable Apache service and restart Apache service using commands:

sudo systemctl enable httpd
sudo systemctl restart httpd

Verify Apache status by command:

sudo systemctl status httpd

PHP

Now install latest version of PHP:

sudo pacman -S php php-apache

After installation we neet to configure out PHP.
Edit file: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

sudo nano /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Find the folowing line and comment it:

#LoadModule mpm_event_module modules/mod_mpm_event.so

Also uncomment or add the line:

LoadModule mpm_prefork_module modules/mod_mpm_prefork.so

Then add the following lines at the bottom of configuration file:

LoadModule php7_module modules/libphp7.so
AddHandler php7-script php
Include conf/extra/php7_module.conf

PHP installed. Now create index.php file in Apache home directory to check that PHP is installed correctly:

sudo nano /srv/http/index.php
<?php
phpinfo();
?>

Restart the PHP service:

sudo systemctl restart httpd

Go to http://127.0.0.1/ and check that Apache server with latest PHP version installed on your Manjaro Linux:

MySQL MariaDB

Install MySQL Server:

sudo pacman -S mysql

Initialize the MariaDB data directory prior to starting the service:

sudo mysql_install_db --user=mysql --basedir=/usr --datadir=/var/lib/mysql

Enable and srart MySQL service:

sudo systemctl enable mysqld 
sudo systemctl start mysqld

Check that MySQL service installed and work correctly:

sudo systemctl status mysqld

After installation MySQL You need to setup root user and password:

sudo mysql_secure_installation

Install Skype on Arch Linux or Manjaro KDE

To install Skype on Arch or Manjaro Linux open terminal and clone latest stable Skype repository:

git clone https://aur.archlinux.org/skypeforlinux-stable-bin

Go to ~/skypeforlinux-stable-bin/ directory and build the AUR package:

cd skypeforlinux-stable-bin/
makepkg -s

When finished the result should be the newly build Skype package ready for the installation:

ls *pkg.tar.xz
skypeforlinux-stable-bin-8.59.0.77-1-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz

Using the pacman command install Skype package. Replace the package name suffix with the Skype version you have compiled previously:

sudo pacman -U --noconfirm skypeforlinux-stable-bin-8.59.0.77-1-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz

That’s all, the Skype installation is now completed. Use the Start menu and search Skype shortcut in Programs->Internet:

or simply start it from terminal:

skypeforlinux