Debian 10 Install PulseAudio

PulseAudio is a network-capable sound server program. A sound server is a background process accepting sound input from one or more sources (processes, capture devices, etc.), that is able to mix and redirect those sources to one or more sinks (sound cards, remote network PulseAudio servers, or other processes).

To install PulseAudio on Debian Linux first update package repository:

sudo apt update

Next install PulseAudio:

sudo apt install pulseaudio

Now reboot your computer.

Using PulseAudio Volume Control Graphical Utility:

PulseAudio has a graphical frontend PulseAudio Volume Control, which you can use to easily configure PulseAudio sounds graphically.

It is not installed by default. Run the following command to install PulseAudio Volume Control:

sudo apt install pavucontrol

Also to change sound volume by hotkeys you need amixer utility install it by command:

apt-get install alsa-utils

Visual Studio Code first config

Visual Studio Code is a very powerful free and open source text editor, but before start usage it you need to but to use all its features, you need to configure it.

Visual Studio Code

First of all disable telemetry collection in File > Preferences > Settings menu:

Override “Alt” button to toggle menu bar:

"window.titleBarStyle": "custom",
"window.customMenuBarAltFocus": false

Disable file previewing when clicked on at all is by setting:

"workbench.editor.enablePreview": false

Functionality of Visual Studio Code can be extended with plugins and extensions.

I prefer to install such basic plugins: Project Manager, Ftp-sync, Show Functions, Beautify, and Material Icon Theme, Atom Material Theme:

This is my basic configuration of Visual Studio Code, you can also change other options and config this amazing text editor as you want.

How to change MySQL root password in Debian / Ubuntu

Connect to MySQL Server using Linux terminal:

sudo mysql --user=root mysql

Run the following commands:

UPDATE mysql.user SET authentication_string=null WHERE User='root';
flush privileges;

Replace NEW_PASSWORD with your own.

ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'NEW_PASSWORD';
flush privileges;
exit;

How to Flush the DNS Cache on Debian 10

To flush DNS cache in Debian GNU/Linux use command:

sudo systemd-resolve --flush-caches

If you get error message: “Failed to flush caches: Unit dbus-org.freedesktop.resolve1.service not found.“, enable the service on your system:

sudo systemctl enable systemd-resolved.service

Then again run the “systemd-resolve –flush-caches” command.

You can then check the statistics in order to make sure that your cache size is now zero, thus cleared. Run the following command in order to view the statistics:

sudo systemd-resolve --statistics

Configure certificate in HestiaCP

1. Backup current certificates in directory /usr/local/hestia/ssl/:

mv /usr/local/hestia/ssl/certificate.crt /usr/local/hestia/ssl/certificate.crt.old 

mv /usr/local/hestia/ssl/certificate.key /usr/local/hestia/ssl/certificate.key.old 

2. In directory /usr/local/vesta/ssl/ make symbol links to certificates, that we use on our site (for example: site.com):

ln -s /home/admin/conf/web/site.com/ssl/site.com.crt /usr/local/hestia/ssl/certificate.crt 

ln -s /home/admin/conf/web/site.com/ssl/site.com.key /usr/local/hestia/ssl/certificate.key 

3. Restart Hestia service:

service hestia restart

How to exit vim? And other required commands.

Vim is the most popular Linux text editor, it was created in 1978 and is used to present days.

Vim has two modes: “Command mode” where you can insert many commands, and “Insert mode” – where you can insert and edit text document. By default Vim open all documents in “Command mode”, to enter into the “Insert mode” – press button “i“.

The most asked question is – “How to exit Vim?” – it is very simple – in Command mode enter :q! and press Enter. This command exit Vim without saving any changes.

:q!

To save file – enter command :w <filename> and press Enter:

:w file.txt

To save file and exit Vim use command :wq and press Enter

:wq

How to uninstall program installed in Wine?

You just need to write in terminal command:

wine uninstaller

This command will start an Add/Remove applet similar to what you get in Windows, which will list your installed WINE programs.

Select program and press button “Uninstall”.

It was very simple 😉

How to set default browser in Debian Linux

To set default browser in Debian or Ubuntu open terminal and write command:

sudo update-alternatives --config x-www-browser

As you can see, we have four alternatives of browsers, installed in operating system, just enter number of browser and press Enter.

How to set permissions to files and folders in Linux terminal

There are there types of file permissions in Linux:

1. Owner permissions
2. Group permissions
3. Other permissions

Also you can set permissions for read, write and execute file for this three groups.

To set correct permissions for all files and folders in currend folder use command:

find . -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 644
find . -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 750

This commands will grant readm write, execute access for owner, read access for group and block all access for other users.

If you wand to grant access to files and folders for other users use commands:

find . -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 665
find . -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 751

Encrypt and decrypt files using GPG

To install GPG on your Debian/Ubuntu/Mint Linux operating system use command:

sudo apt-get install gpg

Default GPG folder is: /home/user/.gnupg. Generate private and public keys:

gpg --full-gen-key

Answer the several questions (encryption type: RSA, keysize: 4096 for better encryption, key expiration time, your name and email address) and press “O” if all changes are correct.

To view public keys use command:

gpg -k

To view secret gpg keys use command:

gpg -K