Install Skype on Debian 10

Skype is not an open-source application, and it is not included in the default Debian repositories. We’ll install Skype using the Skype deb package.

Download Skype deb package:


When the download is complete, install Skype using command:

sudo apt install ./skypeforlinux-64.deb

Now run Skype and authorize with your login, that’s all

Install Viber on Debian 10

Step 1: install flatpak:

sudo apt install flatpak

Step 2: install Viber:

flatpak --user remote-add --if-not-exists flathub
flatpak --user install flathub com.viber.Viber

That’s all, scan QR code with your phone and use Viber on Debian 10!

Installing Wine 6 on Debian 10

Step 1: Enable 32 bit architecture

sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386 

Step 2: Add WineHQ repository

We will pull the latest Wine packages from WineHQ repository that is added manually. First, import GPG key:

sudo apt update
sudo apt -y install gnupg2 software-properties-common
wget -qO - | sudo apt-key add -

You should receive “OK” in the output. Add the Wine repository by running the following command:

sudo apt-add-repository

The command will add repository to line /etc/apt/sources.list file.

Update APT package index:

sudo apt update

Step 3: Install Wine 6 on Debian 10

After configuration of the APT repository, the final step is the actual installation of Wine 6 on Debian 10. Add Wine OBS repository:

wget -O- -q | sudo apt-key add -    
echo "deb ./" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/wine-obs.list

Then install Wine from Stable branch:

sudo apt update
sudo apt install --install-recommends winehq-stable

And for latest release in staging, use:

sudo apt install winehq-staging

After installation. verify version installed.

wine --version  # Stable

wine --version  # Staging
wine-6.5 (Staging)

Debian 10 – install and configure i3wm

i3 is a tiling window manager designed for X11, inspired by wmii and written in C. It supports tiling, stacking, and tabbing layouts, which it handles dynamically.

Configuration is achieved via plain text file and extending i3 is possible using its Unix domain socket and JSON based IPC interface from many programming languages.

Step 1: Install Debian 10.

Download Debian 10 .ISO image from official site:

Step 2: Write ISO image to USB drive using program Etcher:

Step 3: Install Debian 10 on your PC.

Don’t install any other programs and desktop environments, uncheck all check boxes in installation menu. You need clear operating system without any other software.

Installation i3wm and other software:

Now you have clear oerating system with command shell.

First authorize in system with root login, change repositories to testing branch in file /etc/apt/sources.list, it is needed to get latest packages:

Upgrade your system:

apt update
apt upgrade

Install sudo and add sudo privilegies to your username:

apt install sudo
usermod -aG sudo username

Now you can logout from user root and authorize with your username login, Install file manager MC and other additional software:

sudo apt install mc vim htop screenfetch

Install X-Window-Server, I3, and other software for desktop environment:

apt install bash-completion lightdm zenity network-manager-gnome viewnior i3 xserver-xorg xbacklight conky nitrogen compton tilix firefox-esr thunar rofi flameshot

Debian 10 Install PulseAudio

PulseAudio is a network-capable sound server program. A sound server is a background process accepting sound input from one or more sources (processes, capture devices, etc.), that is able to mix and redirect those sources to one or more sinks (sound cards, remote network PulseAudio servers, or other processes).

To install PulseAudio on Debian Linux first update package repository:

sudo apt update

Next install PulseAudio:

sudo apt install pulseaudio

Now reboot your computer.

Using PulseAudio Volume Control Graphical Utility:

PulseAudio has a graphical frontend PulseAudio Volume Control, which you can use to easily configure PulseAudio sounds graphically.

It is not installed by default. Run the following command to install PulseAudio Volume Control:

sudo apt install pavucontrol

Also to change sound volume by hotkeys you need amixer utility install it by command:

apt-get install alsa-utils

How to Enable Wake-on-LAN in Windows 10

1. Go to Device Manager, and enable Wake on LAN option in your ethernet adapter:

2. Go to your Mikrotik router -> Tools -> WoL -> enter MAC address of computer, select in what interface connected computer and press button “Wake On LAN”:

How to remove ONT from the BDCOM OLT configuration

Connect to OLT and go into the configuration mode:


Let’s look at the current configuration and find the MAC address of the ONT you want to delete:

show running-config

Choose the interface (port) on which ONT is registered:

interface EPON0/1

And delete ONT, for example with mac address 8014.a8b4.eb2c:

no epon bind-onu mac e067.b336.88e8


Connect LM35 analog temperature sensor to Arduino

The LM35 is an inexpensive, precision Centigrade temperature sensor made by Texas Instruments. It provides an output voltage that is linearly proportional to the Centigrade temperature and is, therefore, very easy to use with the Arduino.

The sensor does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide accuracies of ±0.5°C at room temperature and ±1°C over the −50°C to +155°C temperature range.

One of the downsides of the sensor is that it requires a negative bias voltage to read negative temperatures. So if that is needed for your project, I recommend using the DS18B20 or TMP36 instead. The TMP36 by Analog Devices is very similar to the LM35 and can read temperatures from -40°C to 125°C without any external components.

The pinout of the sensor:

Note that pin 1 (+VS) is the leftmost pin when the flat side of the sensor (with the text printed on it) is facing towards you.

Pin1: +VS  - Positive power supply pin (4 – 30 V)
Pin2: Vout - Temperature sensor analog output
Pin3: GND  - Device ground pin

Source code of Arduino sketch:

#define sensorPin A0

void setup() {
  // Begin serial communication at a baud rate of 9600:

  // Set the reference voltage to the built-in 1.1V reference:
void loop() {
  // Get a reading from the temperature sensor:
  int reading = analogRead(sensorPin);

  // Convert the reading into voltage:
  float voltage = reading * (1100 / 1024.0);

  // Convert the voltage into the temperature in degree Celsius:
  float temperature = voltage / 10;

  // Print the temperature in the Serial Monitor:
  Serial.print(" \xC2\xB0"); // shows degree symbol
  delay(1000); // wait a second between readings

How to install Composer on Linux server

Composer is a most popular PHP package manager, let’s install composer on website and watch how it works.

You can download Composer from official site:

Connect to your server via SSH client and run this commands:

php -r "copy('', 'composer-setup.php');"

php -r "if (hash_file('sha384', 'composer-setup.php') === '756890a4488ce9024fc62c56153228907f1545c228516cbf63f885e036d37e9a59d27d63f46af1d4d07ee0f76181c7d3') { echo 'Installer verified'; } else { echo 'Installer corrupt'; unlink('composer-setup.php'); } echo PHP_EOL;"

php composer-setup.php

php -r "unlink('composer-setup.php');"

Connect DS3231 real time clock to Arduino NANO

DS1302, DS1307, DS3231 is a real-time modules for Arduino and Raspberry PI. Let’s connect DS3231 to our Arduino NANO.

To work with this module we will use universal library: iarduino_RTC (

Download latest version of this library you can here:

First of all connect DS3231 module to Arduino:

GND (-) --> GND
VCC (+) --> +5V
SDA (D) --> A4
SCL (C) --> A5

Include library and initialize module:

#include <iarduino_RTC.h>
iarduino_RTC time(RTC_DS1307);

To set current time in DS3231 module tuesday write next functions in function setup():

void setup() {
    // 0  sec, 20 min, 17 hour, 30 day, 3 mon, 2021 year, tuesday

In function loop() let’s write to serial port current time:

void loop(){
    if(millis() % 1000 == 0) {
        Serial.println(time.gettime("d-m-Y, H:i:s, D"));

This sketch you need to run once time, when configure DS3231 module.

If you want just to show current time – use this source code:

iarduino_RTC time(RTC_DS1307);

void setup() {
void loop() {
    if(millis() % 1000 == 0) {
        Serial.println(time.gettime("d-m-Y, H:i:s, D"));